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發電-我們有哪些選擇?Electricity generation - what are the options?編輯

每一種發電方式都有其優缺點。全球電力需求不斷上升,未來將需要各式各樣的發電方式,但若考慮到要降低溫室氣體的排放,必須選擇底碳排放的發電方式。核能發電提供了穩定的電力來源,有極低的碳排放量,且其產生的廢料量相對較少,可以安全地儲藏,直到最終被丟棄。

Every form of electricity generation has its strengths and weakness. The global demand for electricity is rising, and future electricity generation will need a range of options, although they must be low carbon if greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced. Nuclear generation provides reliable supplies of electricity, with very low carbon emissions and relatively small amounts of waste that can be safely stored and eventually disposed of.

電力是現代生活中不可缺少的東西,它點亮了我們家中的電燈以及各樣家電,它提供了許多工業程序所需的能量,它也被用來推動火車和電力汽車。

Electricity is vital to modern life. It powers our lights and appliances at home. It powers many industry processes. It is used to power trains and to charge electric vehicles.

以全球的觀點來看,隨著世界各國(例如:中國、印度)的經濟發展,電的使用量正快速地上升,也使得發電的需求不斷增長。未來數十年內,世界各地將建造數以千計的新發電廠。

Globally, electricity use is rising rapidly as new major economies develop in places such as China and India.

This need for electricity drives a growing demand for electricity generation, with thousands of new power plants needed across the world over the coming decades.

在過去幾十年,幾乎所有的電力都是由火力、水力和核能三種方式所產生的,再生能源只佔了發電量中的一小部分,雖然近年其比例正快速成長。

For many decades almost all the electricity consumed in the world has been generated from three different forms of power plant - fossil, hydro and nuclear. Renewables currently generate a relatively small share of the world's electricity, although that share is growing fast.

火力發電 Fossil編輯

火力發電廠以燃燒化石燃料,例如:煤炭、石油或天然氣,加熱水產生水蒸氣推動渦輪來發電,這些發電廠可以提供長期可靠的電力。然而,燃燒化石燃料的同時也產生了大量二氧化碳,導致全球氣候變遷。火力發電也會產生其他汙染物,例如硫氧化物會導致酸雨。

Fossil fuel power plants burn carbon fuels such coal, oil or gas to generate steam that drives large turbines that produce electricity. These plants can generate electricity reliably over long periods of time. However, by burning carbon fuels they produce large amounts carbon dioxide, which causes climate change. They can also produce other pollutants, such as sulphurous oxides, which cause acid rain. 

火力發電廠需要大量的煤炭、石油或天然氣,這些燃料都必須由外國進口,且它們的價格有可能在化石燃料短缺時劇烈上揚,進而導致發電成本不穩定。

Fossil fuel plants require huge quantities of coal, oil or gas. These fuels may need to be transported over long distances. The price of fuels can rise sharply at times of shortage, leading to unstable generation costs.

水力發電 Large hydro編輯

大型水力發電廠藉由將水儲存在以水壩建成的大型儲存槽,使水由水壩上方向下流經渦輪來發電。

Large hydro power plants generate electricity by storing water in vast reservoirs behind massive dams. Water from the dams flows through turbines to generate electricity, and then goes on to flow through rivers below the dam.


水力發電可以產生大量的電力,但在乾旱期時儲水槽可能會缺水,並且水壩形成的湖泊以及截斷河流,都會造成水壩附近的生態受到衝擊。另外,適合建造新水壩的地點也十分有限。

Hydro dams can generate large amounts of electricity. However, dry periods can drain the reservoirs. The flooding of reservoirs behind dams and slowing of the flow of the river below the dam can have a serious impact on the ecology around the dam. The number of sites suitable for new dams is limited.

核能發電 Nuclear編輯

核能發電廠以核分裂所釋放的熱,加熱水產生水蒸氣以推動渦輪發電,就如同火力發電一樣。然而,核分裂的過程並不會排出任何溫室氣體,而且在整個燃料週期只會排放及少量的溫室氣體。 Nuclear power plants use the heat produced by nuclear fission to generate steam that drives turbines, like in fossil fuel plants. However, no greenhouse gases are produced in this fission process, and only small amounts are produced across the whole fuel cycle.

核燃料在反應爐中可以使用數年,之後用過的核燃料會被儲藏,然後回收作為新燃料或是謹慎地被丟棄。然而,因為核能發電所使用的燃料量遠比火力發電少,比起處理火力發電造成的廢棄物與排放的汙染物,妥善處理核能發電的廢棄物更為可行而實際。

Nuclear fuel can be used in a reactor for several years. The used fuel that remains after this time must be stored and then either recycled to make new fuel or carefully disposed of. However, because the amount of fuel used to generate electricity is so much less than that used in fossil fuel plants it is much more practical to do this with used nuclear fuel than with the wastes and emissions from fossil fuels.

核能發電廠可以無間斷地持續運轉數個月以上,提供穩定且可預測的電力供給。核能發電是最安全又對環境傷害最低的發電方式之一。

Nuclear power plants can run for many months without interruption, providing reliable and predictable supplies of electricity.

Nuclear power plants can generate electricity "24/7" for many months at a time, without interruption. Nuclear generation is one of the safest and least environmentally damaging forms of electricity generation

再生能源 Renewables編輯

再生能源,如:風力、太陽能以及小型水力發電,在發電時完全不會排放任何溫室氣體,並且在整個發電廠的生命週期只會排放及少量的溫室氣體。 Renewables such as wind, solar and small scale hydro produce electricity with no greenhouse gas emissions at the point of generation and very low amounts of greenhouse gas emissions across their entire lifecycle. 

以再生能源發電的成本普遍高於其他發電方式,往往需要政府補貼才具有競爭力,雖然近日以來成本逐漸降低中。

The cost of electricity generation from many renewables tends to be higher than other forms of generation, often requiring subsidies to compete with other forms of generation, although these costs are coming down.

許多再生能源無法產生穩定且可預測的電力。例如風力發電的功率隨著風速而變動,當風太微弱或是太強時甚至不會產生任何電力。太陽能發電的輸出也會因陽光的強度而變化,陽光強度與一日中的時間和雲量相關。這意味著我們必須以其他方式發電作為儲備電力,通常都是採取火力發電並且因此排放溫室氣體。

Many renewables do not produce electricity predictably or consistently. Electricity generation from wind turbines varies with the wind speed, and if that wind is too weak or too strong no electricity is produced at all. The output of solar panels is reliant on the strength of the sunshine, which depends on the time of day and the amount of cloud cover. This means that renewables have to be backed up by other forms of electricity generation, often fossil fuel generation with their resultant greenhouse gas emissions.


資料來源:http://www.world-nuclear.org/Nuclear-Basics/Electricity-generation---what-are-the-options-/

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